Tuesday, 30 December 2008

Ben Dotsei Malor

Ben Dotsei Malor
Age: 39.

Where born?
TADZEWU, Volta Region, GHANA - 3 miles from hometown Ohawu. Apparently, my pregnant mum, a trader, had gone to the market in Tadzewu and suddenly realised I was eager to make my entry into the world.

First memory?
Sweets brought home from the market by Mum.

Favourite school teacher(s)?
Several! In primary school: Mr De and Mr Amuzu. In secondary school: Mr Amegashie, a Mathematics teacher who made the (hitherto tough) subject a joy for all of us.

Best school friend(s)?
Robert Geraldo, Thomas Kwadzovia, Arnold Mensa Bonsu

Best school subject?
Mathematics and History

Married or single?

One: A boy called Klenam, an Ewe name meaning "Shine for me".

Favourite food?
Boiled rice and spinach (or green leaves) stew with fried fish.

Favourite music?
Gospel and Reggae

Favourite African country?
I'm yet to see a lot more of the continent ... so I'll have to stick with what I know best, my mother country, Ghana.

Favourite politician?
Marcus Garvey of Jamaica and William Wilberforce of the UK.

Favourite holiday location?
I haven't had many holidays but I'll love to travel in California, Tunisia, and Kenya
Favourite sport(s)?
Volleyball and Soccer

Favourite African sportsman?
Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia

Favourite film?
A few good men/Boys in the Hood

What brings you most happiness?
Making others happy.

Where would you most like to live?
Anywhere where I'm a blessing to people around me.

Where would you most like to die?
During the course of helping others or on a quiet farm somewhere.

(source: Network Africa Presenters Profiles, network.africa@bbc.co.uk)

7 Jul 2008 ... Ben Dotsei Malor, Spokesman, mobile +231-(0)5319147, email: malor@un.org
(source; google.co.uk)

UK's postcodes at 50th anniversary

Note from Mosonga:
I heard this morning (30/12/2008 via Talksport Radio) that today(?) is the anniversary of the prestigious British postcode system! I'm not sure if they meant it is exactly today or maybe sometime next year, as I have come to learn that the system was started in 1959 (in Norwich), which means that the anniversay is supposed to be next year!

The Postcode
The postcode, in its present form as a mixture of six letters and digits, was first used in Norwich in October, 1959. This was the world's first experiment with postal address codes, designed to allow sorting by machine. By 1974, the postcode system covered Britain.

The earliest form of postcode was introduced in London in 1857. Sir Rowland Hill, the inventor of the penny post, divided London into districts denoted by compass points, 'N' for north, 'S' for south and so on. The first provincial city to be divided into postal districts was Liverpool in 1864.

Numbers were added to the London postal districts to divide them up more specifically into NW1, SW2, etc during the First World War, in 1916.
(source; bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A1082558)

Postal codes in the United Kingdom
UK postal codes are known as postcodes.

UK postcodes are alphanumeric. These codes were introduced by the Royal Mail over a 15-year period from 1959 to 1974 — the full list is now available electronically from the Royal Mail as the Postcode Address File. They have been widely adopted not just for their original purpose of automating the sorting of mail but for many other purposes such as insurance premium calculations and as a way to describe United Kingdom locations to route planning software, and as the lowest level of aggregation in census enumeration.

However, as the format of the codes does not achieve its objective of primarily identifying the main sorting office and sub-office they have been supplemented by a newer system of five-digit codes called Mailsort — but only for mailings of 'a minimum of 4,000 letter-sized items'. Mail users who can deliver mail to the post office sorted by Mailsort code receive discounts but [bulk] delivery by postcode provides no such incentive.

Postcode history
The major cities of the UK have much older postcodes, now incorporated into the current system, than other areas. In the mid-19th century, central London postal districts were divided between east central (EC) and west central (WC); broadly speaking the City and the West End, while the perimeter of inner London were split into N, NW, NE, S, SW, SE, W, and E. This first system of ten London postal districts was devised by Sir Rowland Hill and introduced in 1857 and 1858. S and NE were later dropped and are now used for Sheffield and Newcastle. The numbered subdivisions (W1, W2 etc) were a war-time measure and date from 1917. The 1917 subdivisions remain important, because they form the first part of the two-part modern postcode (so N1 1AA is an address in the old N1 district), and because they continue to be used by Londoners to refer to their districts.

The Post Office experimented with electromechanical sorting machines in the late 1950s. These devices would present an envelope to an operator, who would press a button indicating which bin to sort the letter into. Postcodes were suggested to increase the efficiency of this process, by removing the need for the sorter to remember the correct sorting for as many places.

In January 1959 the Post Office analyzed the results of a survey on public attitudes towards the use of postal codes. The next step would be choosing a town in which to experiment with coded addresses. The envisaged format was to be a six character alphanumeric code with three letters designating the geographical area and three numbers to identify the individual address. On 28 July Ernest Marples, the Postmaster General, announced that Norwich had been selected, and that each of the 150,000 private and business addresses would receive a code by October. Norwich had been selected as it already had eight automatic mail sorting machines in use. The codes were in the form NOR followed by two digits and a letter.

When this modern postcode system was introduced for London in 1960s, the numerals were added such that the nearest areas in each direction were allocated the number “1” (W1, SW1, ect.). Afterwards, numbers were allocated alphabetically, not by geography, and with complete disregard to the boundaries of London’s boroughs.

In October 1965 it was confirmed that postal coding was to be extended to the rest of the country in the "next few years". On 1 May 1967 post codes were introduced in Croydon. The codes for central Croydon started with the letters CRO, and those of the surrounding post towns with CR2, CR3 and CR4. This was to be the beginning of a ten year plan, costing an estimated £24 million. Within two years it was expected that coding would be used in Aberdeen, Belfast, Brighton, Bristol, Bromley, Cardiff, Coventry, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newport, Reading, Sheffield, Southampton and the western district of London. By 1967 codes had been introduced to Aberdeen, Southampton, Brighton and Derby. In 1970 codes were introduced to the Western and North West London areas. In December 1970 Christmas mail was franked with the message "Remember to use the Postcode", although codes were only used to sort mail in a handful of sorting offices.

During 1971 occupants of addresses began to receive notification of their postcode. Asked in the House of Commons about the completion of the coding exercise, the Postmaster General, Sir John Eden stated it was expected to be completed during 1972.

The scheme was finalised in 1974 when Norwich was completely re-coded but the scheme tested in Croydon was sufficiently close to the final design for it to be retained. Newport was originally allocated NPT, in a similar way to Norwich and Croydon, with the surrounding towns allocated NP1-NP8. This lasted into the mid 1980s when for operational reasons (NPT being non-standard, and too similar to NP7) it was recoded.

The legacy of the Croydon trial can still be seen today:

CR0 was the only postal district with a zero in that position: all others start with 1. This caused some of the Royal Mail's software to misbehave slightly. Subsequently, the "zeroth" district has been used in some other postcode areas, such as Bolton, Harrow, Slough, Chelmsford and Southend on Sea.
A separate postal "district", CR9 is used for large users and PO Box holders. This policy has been used elsewhere, with normal postcodes "growing" upwards from district 1 and large-user postcodes "growing" downwards from district 99.
The CR0 district contains far more addresses than any other postal district in the country.
CR1 has never been used — possibly left spare for rationalisation. (The other CR districts, CR2 etc. were coded later and conform to the general standards.)
There was at one point a movement to change all CR0 postcodes to CR1, but this was rejected.
CR0 is often incorrectly written as CRO, although in some type faces and handwriting the digit '0' and letter 'O' are identical -- the problem is exacerbated as it is often pronounced 'Sea Arr Oh' rather than 'Sea Arr Zero'.

The format of UK postcodes is generally:

A9 9AA
A99 9AA
AA99 9AA
where A signifies a letter and 9 a digit. It is a hierarchical system, working from left to right — the first letter or pair of letters represents the area, the following digit or digits represent the district within that area, and so on. Each postcode generally represents a street, part of a street, or a single premises. This feature makes the postcode useful to route planning software.

The part of the code before the space is the outward code or out code used to direct mail from one sorting office to the destination sorting office, while the part after the space is the inward code or in code used to sort the mail into individual delivery rounds. The outward code can be split further into the area part (letters identifying one of 124 postal areas) and the district part (usually numbers); similarly, the inward code is split into the sector part (number) and the unit part (letters). Each postcode identifies the address to within 100 properties (with an average of 15 properties per postcode), although a large business may have a single code

Name Location Component format for YO31 1EB Number of live codes Number of terminated codes. Other Codes
(GIR 0AA, SAN TA1, BX) [17] Total
postcode area out code YO 124 0 3 127
postcode district out code YO31 2,971 103 4 3,078
sector in code YO31 1 10,631 1,071 4 11,706
unit in code YO31 1EB 1,762,464[16] 650,417 4 2,412,885
Postcode Addresses approx. 27,000,000 [18]

The letters in the outward code may give some clue to its geographical location (but see London below). For example, L indicates Liverpool, EH indicates Edinburgh and AB indicates Aberdeen; see List of postcode areas in the United Kingdom for a full list. Although BT indicates Belfast, it covers the whole of Northern Ireland. The letters in the inward code, however, are restricted to the set ABDEFGHJLNPQRSTUWXYZ (excluding CIKMOV), which generally do not resemble digits or each other when hand-written.

There are at least two exceptions (other than the overseas territories) to this format:

the postcode for the formerly Post Office-owned Girobank is GIR 0AA.
the postcode for correctly addressed letters to Father Christmas is SAN TA1[19]
In addition to postcodes, Delivery Point Suffixes (DPS) have been developed to uniquely identify each delivery point (a letterbox) within a single postcode. A DPS is two-character (a digit and a letter) code optionally appended to postcode. Use of DPS codes is mandatory for Mailsort barcodes generation.

Greater London postcodes
Main article: London postal district
In the London Postal Area postcodes are slightly different, being based on the 1856 system of Postal Districts which was refined in 1917 by numbering the 163 Sub-Districts; predating by many years the introduction of postcodes in the 1960s:

In parts of central London, WC and EC (West Central and East Central)
In the rest of the London Postal Area, N, NW, SW, SE, W and E.
The London postal districts rarely coincide with the boundaries of the London boroughs (even the former, smaller Metropolitan Boroughs). The numbering system appears arbitrary on the map: for example, NW1 is close to central London, but NW2 is a long way out. This is because, after starting with 1 for the area containing the main sorting office of the larger district, the numbers were allocated alphabetically according to the name of the smaller sorting office that formed each new sub-district's hub.

The area covered by the London postal districts was somewhat larger than the County of London, and included parts of Kent, Essex, Surrey, Middlesex and Hertfordshire. In 1965 the creation of Greater London caused this situation to be reversed as the boundaries of Greater London went beyond most of the existing London postal districts.

Those places not covered by the existing districts received postcodes as part of the national coding plan, so the postcode areas of "EN" Enfield, "KT" Kingston upon Thames, "HA" Harrow, "UB" Uxbridge", "TW" Twickenham, "SM" Sutton, "CR" Croydon, "DA" Dartford, "BR" Bromley, "RM" Romford and "IG" Ilford cross administrative boundaries and cover parts of neighbouring counties as well as parts of Greater London.

A further complication is that in some of the most central London areas, a further gradation has been necessary to produce enough postcodes, giving codes like EC1A 1AA.

While most postcodes are allocated by administrative convenience, a few are deliberately chosen. For example in Westminster:

SW1A 0AA - House of Commons
SW1A 0PW - House of Lords, Palace of Westminster
SW1A 1AA - Buckingham Palace
SW1A 2AA - 10 Downing Street, Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury
SW1A 2AB - 11 Downing Street, Chancellor of the Exchequer
SW1A 2HQ - HM Treasury headquarters
W1A 1AA - Broadcasting House
W1A 1AB - Selfridges
N81 1ER - Electoral Reform Society (the whole of N81 is reserved for the ERS)

Other areas' postcodes

Street name signs on Birdbrook Road, Great Barr, Birmingham, showing old "Birmingham 22" (top) and modern "B44" postcodes.Until the 1960s, Postal Areas such as Belfast, Birmingham, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Hove, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Salford, Newcastle upon Tyne and Sheffield were divided into numbered Postal Districts, e.g. Toxteth in Liverpool was Liverpool 8. When the national postcode system was introduced, these were incorporated into it, so that postcodes in Toxteth start with L8. A similar system is still used in the Republic of Ireland for Dublin's postal districts.

Some Birmingham codes were sub-divided, with a letter, such as Great Barr, Birmingham 22 or Birmingham 22a - as can still be seen on many older street-name signs.

A single numbering sequence was split between Manchester and Salford. Letters would be addressed to Manchester 1 or Salford 4. However in the 1960s, all the districts in both Manchester and Salford gained "M" postcodes, so "Salford 4" became M4, etc., much to the chagrin of Salfordians. The old coding lives on in a handful of street signs which are still embossed with "Salford 4" etc, at the bottom.

Glasgow shared with London a distinction from all other UK cities as it had compass postal districts due to its claimed status as the Second City of the British Empire, i.e., C, W, NW, N, E, S, SW, SE. When postcodes were introduced these were mapped into the new 'G' postcode area thus: C1 became G1, W1 became G11, N1 became G21, E1 became G31, S1 became G41, SW1 became G51, and so on.

The consequence of the complexity outlined above is that for almost every rule concerning UK postcodes, an exception can be found. Automatic validation of postcodes on the basis of pattern feasibility is therefore almost impossible to design, and the system contains no self-validating feature such as a check digit. Completely accurate validation is only possible by attempting to deliver mail to the address, and verifying with the recipient.

Validation is usually performed against a copy of the "Postcode Address File" (PAF), which is generated by the Royal Mail and contains about 27 million UK commercial and residential addresses. However, even the PAF cannot be relied on as it contains errors, and because new postcodes are occasionally created and used before copies of the PAF can be distributed to users.

It is possible to validate the format of a postcode using the rules described in British Standard BS 7666. In general, the format is one of "A9 9AA", "A99 9AA", "AA9 9AA", "AA99 9AA", "A9A 9AA" or "AA9A 9AA", where A is an alphabetic character and 9 is a numeric character. There are restrictions on the set of alphabetic characters dependent on the position they are in.

As can be seen, the first character is always alphabetical and the final three characters are always a numeric character followed by two alphabetic characters.

A regular expression is given in the comments of the schema, which implements full checking of all the stated BS 7666 postcode format rules. That regular expression can be restated as a "traditional" regular expression:

(GIR 0AA|[A-PR-UWYZ]([0-9]{1,2}|([A-HK-Y][0-9]|[A-HK-Y][0-9]([0-9]|[ABEHMNPRV-Y]))|[0-9][A-HJKS-UW]) [0-9][ABD-HJLNP-UW-Z]{2})
The BS 7666 rules do not match British Forces Post Office postcodes, which have the format "BFPO NNN" or "BFPO c/o NNN", where NNN is 1 to 4 numerical digits.

A regular expression to implement the BS 7666 rules:[22]

(GIR 0AA)|((([A-Z-[QVX]][0-9][0-9]?)|(([A-Z-[QVX]][A-Z-[IJZ]][0-9][0-9]?)|(([A-Z-[QVX]][0-9][A-HJKSTUW])|([A-Z-[QVX]][A-Z-[IJZ]][0-9][ABEHMNPRVWXY])))) [0-9][A-Z-[CIKMOV]]{2}){2}
Alternative short regular expression from BS7666 Schema is:

[A-Z]{1,2}[0-9R][0-9A-Z]? [0-9][A-Z-[CIKMOV]]{2}
However, it has error and modified expression can be used:

[A-Z]{1,2}[0-9R][0-9A-Z]? [0-9][A-Z]{2}

Non-geographic postcodes
Almost all postcodes map directly to a geographic area, but there are some which are used simply for routing, mostly for the purposes of direct marketing, and cannot be used for navigation or distance-finding applications.

These codes include BS98, BS99, BT58, E98, NE98, NE99 and WC99.

There is an additional entirely non-geographic outward code BX, from which postcodes can be allocated entirely independently of the geographic location of the recipient (and which can be retained in the event of the customer moving)

Within Royal Mail, outward codes beginning XY are used internally as routing codes to route mis-addressed mail, and to route international outbound mail.

Girobank's headquarters in Bootle used the non-geographic postcode GIR 0AA, which is still used today by Girobank's eventual owners, Alliance and Leicester (Note that Alliance and Leicester have now been taken over by Santander).

The PAF is commercially licenseable and is often incorporated in address management software packages. The capabilities of such packages allow an address to be constructed solely from the postcode and house number for most addresses. By including the map references of postcodes in the address database, the postcode can be used automatically to pinpoint a postcode area on a map. See http://www.streetmap.co.uk for an example of this in practice. The PAF is constantly updated with around 4,000 postcodes added each month and 2,000 existing postcodes terminated.

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland was the last part of the UK to be postcoded with all postcodes beginning BT, between 1970 and 1974. While Belfast was already divided into postal districts, rural areas known as townlands posed an additional problem, as (at the time) many roads were not named, and houses were not numbered. Consequently, many people living in such areas shared the same postal address, which still occurs in the Republic of Ireland. Today the majority of roads in Northern Ireland are named (notable exceptions are in Fermanagh) and most houses (even in rural areas) are allocated a number. Those that are not allocated numbers can be uniquely identified by a house name. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Monday, 29 December 2008

'you campaign with poetry, but you govern with "prose"'
-tony blair, middle-east envoy, 09/11/2008. 21:10 GMT (sky news tv, on obama's victory)

"Hatusomi, hatudadisi!!!"

Watanzania hatusomi, hatudadisi
NILIPATA kusimulia kisa kifuatacho. Kuna wakati mwandishi wa safu moja ya gazeti nchini alipata kuambiwa na Profesa Seithy Chachage kuwa tatizo kubwa la wanafunzi wake, yaani wanafunzi wa Chachage, ni kutopenda kujisomea.

Jambo hili nilipata kuliandika huko nyuma. Lakini kwa vile bado ni tatizo kubwa, basi, tunahitaji kukumbushana. Chachage alisema wanafunzi hao wakiwa chuoni, husoma kwa ajili ya kufanya mitihani ili wavuke kwenda mwaka unaofuata. Kwamba mtindo wao wa kusoma ni wa madesa (vitini) tu na si vitabu.

Kwa mujibu wa mwandishi huyo, Chachage alilalamika kwamba wanafunzi walio wengi hushindwa kupambanua mambo kadhaa yanayowazunguka. Ni dhahiri, kwa anayefuatilia jamii yetu kwa sasa, hatapata taabu sana kukubaliana na maelezo ya Chachage kwa rafiki yake huyo.

Ni kweli kuwa Watanzania tulio wengi, na si wanafunzi pekee, tumepoteza utamaduni wa kusoma. Inafika mahala mwanafunzi au hata aliye nje ya shule anaangalia kwanza ukubwa wa kitabu na wingi wa kurasa kabla ya kuamua kuazima au kununua kitabu badala ya kuangalia maudhui ya kitabu husika. Imejitokeza hofu juu ya kurasa za kitabu, zisiwe nyingi sana, vinginevyo msomaji anatishika nacho.

Hakuna atakayebisha, kwamba nchi yetu haiwezi kupiga hatua zozote za maana kuelekea kwenye chochote kinachoitwa maendeleo kama watu wetu walio wengi hawatapenda kujisomea, kujiendeleza kimaarifa na hivyo basi, kujijengea uwezo wa kudadisi mambo.

Wengi tumekuwa wavivu sana wa kusoma. Leo ni kawaida kumkuta kijana aliyemaliza kidato cha nne hata cha sita bila hata kusoma maandiko yeyote yale ya Shaaban Robert kwa kutoa mfano wa mwandishi mmoja. Itawezekana vipi kijana wa Kitanzania amalize miaka 20 shuleni bila kusoma hata kurasa tatu tu za maandiko ya Shaaban Robert ukiacha waandishi wengine mahiri wa nchi hii?! Hivi kijana huyu atajijua kweli kuwa yeye ni nani kwa maana ya utambulisho wake?

Katika Kenya hakuna kijana anayemaliza miaka 20 shuleni bila kumsoma Ngugi Wa Thiong'o. Nigeria hakuna kijana anayemaliza miaka 20 shuleni bila kumsoma Chinua Achebe au Wole Soyinka. Iweje katika nchi yetu vijana wamalize miaka 20 shuleni bila kusoma maandiko yaliyojaa hekima na yaliyosheheni utamaduni wetu kama yale ya Shaaban Robert? Maandiko kama: Adili Na Nduguze, Kusadikika, Utu Bora Mkulima na mengineyo.

Hadi hii leo,tunaamini, kuwa katika Afrika ya Mashariki nzima hajatokea mwandishi wa fasihi kwa lugha ya Kiswahili mfano wa Shaaban Robert. Si ajabu, kuwa marehemu Shaaban Robert alitokea kuwa mwandishi mzuri. Shaaban Robert alikuwa ni msomaji mzuri wa vitabu vya hadithi, mashairi na maarifa mengine.

Naam. Elimu juu ya maarifa mbalimbali humu duniani hupatikana kwa mtu kujiendeleza kielimu. Hatua ya kwanza na ya msingi kabisa katika kuelekea kwenye mapenzi na elimu ni ile hali ya mtu kupenda kujisomea vitabu hata vile ambavyo viko nje ya mitaala ya shule na vyuo.

Ni ukweli usiopingika, kuwa utamaduni wa kujisomea umedorora na unaendelea kudorora mno katika jamii yetu. Kudorora kwa utamaduni wa kujisomea kunachangiwa kwa kiasi kikubwa na kushuka kwa kiwango cha elimu nchini na pia mabadiliko ya kijamii yaliyojitokeza katika miaka ya karibuni.

Si ajabu siku hizi kwa watoto na hata wazazi kuchukua muda wao mwingi kuangalia televisheni na hivyo basi kutotilia maanani suala zima la kujisomea. Ni rahisi mno kukaa kwenye kiti na kuangalia televisheni badala ya kuchukua kitabu na kujisomea.

Watanzania pia wamepoteza utamaduni wao wa miaka mingi wa kusikiliza vipindi vya maarifa redioni. Wengi wanapendelea kusikiliza idhaa za redio zenye kupiga muziki kutwa kucha. Muziki unaoambatana na matangazo na vipindi vya kijamii visivyofanyiwa utafiti na wala maandalizi ya kutosha. Tunaamini, kuwa miaka ya nyuma Watanzania walikuwa na upeo mkubwa wa uelewa wa mambo yanayotokea ndani ya nchi na hata kimataifa.

Hili la kudumaa kwa utamaduni wa kujisomea limesababisha pia kudumaa na kushuka kwa viwango vya ubora wa uandishi, Uwe uandishi wa habari, hadithi na hata ripoti mbali mbali. Umefika wakati wa sisi wenyewe kuchukua hatua za makusudi kabisa za kujijengea utamaduni wa kujisomea. Tujijengee kiu ya kupenda kusoma.

Tukumbuke pia, kuwa kiu ya kusoma haiji hivi hivi tu, inajengwa utotoni na hata ukubwani. Katika hili Shaaban Robert alipata kuandika: " Bahati haiji yenyewe, hunyoshewa mkono au hufuatwa". Na ndivyo ilivyo kwa maarifa. Hayaji yenyewe bila kujibidisha kujisomea.

Tujitahidi kubadilika na kuondokana na mtazamo hasi juu ya vitabu. Baadhi yetu, tangu utotoni, shule na vitabu huwa ni kama uchungu wa lazima kuupitia. Ukishamaliza masomo, basi, huwa mwisho wa kusoma vitabu. Walio shuleni hawajengewi misingi imara ya kupenda kujisomea hata baada ya kumaliza masomo. Wanasoma ili wafaulu mitihani, wanakariri majawabu. Hatuwaandai watoto wetu wawe ni watu wenye kuuliza maswali, kudadisi na kuhoji ili waongeze zaidi maarifa yao.

Mwisho kabisa, kusoma ni burudani kama burudani nyingine. Ukisoma kitabu ukipendacho utafurahi, utacheka peke yako, utasikitika, utatokwa na machozi, utafarijika. Kwa kupitia vitabu unaweza kupata maarifa mbali mbali katika ulimwengu huu. Unaweza kusafiri katika maeneo ambayo hujapata kufika, na kujua jiografia ya sehemu hizo, yote haya kwa kupitia maandiko tu, vitabu. Wakati tukiumaliza mwaka huu jiulize; nimesoma vitabu vingapi mwaka huu?
(chanzo: Raia Mwema, Na Maggid Mjengwa Disemba 24, 2008 Simu: 0754 678 252
Barua-pepe: mjengwamaggid@gmail.com Blogu: mjengwa.blogspot.com)

Unemployment rising!

Next year could be the worst year for British jobs in two decades.

A report predicts 600,000 people are facing redundancy and others will have their pay frozen.

The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development is warning when the recession ends, more than a million jobs could have been lost in the UK.

The institute, which represents managers and personnel staff, forecast that unemployment will stop short of three million, but it warned that the period between New Year and Easter will be the worst for redundancies since 1991.

Chief economist John Philpott said: "This time last year, in the face of some scepticism, the CIPD warned that 2008 would be the UK's worst year for jobs in a decade.

"It was, but in retrospect it will be seen as merely the slow motion prelude to what will be the worst year for jobs in almost two decades."

He continued: "The CIPD's annual barometer forecast is that the UK economy will shed at least 600,000 jobs in 2009.

"Overall the 18-month period from the start of the recession in mid-2008 until the end of 2009 will witness the loss of around three quarters of a million jobs, equivalent to the total net rise in employment in the preceding three years.

"Assuming the economy bottoms out in the second half of 2009, job losses are likely to continue into 2010, in all probability taking the final toll of lost jobs to around one million.

"Our current expectation, based on available survey evidence and employer soundings, is that the number of redundancies will jump sharply in the early months of 2009, once employers take stock of the economic outlook."

A survey of 2,600 workers by the CIPD showed that more than one in four did not expect a pay rise next year, a similar number believed any wage increase will be lower than in 2008, while some feared a wage cut. (source: uk.news.yahoo.com)

Saturday, 27 December 2008

New Year around the corner!!!!

As the year 2008 edges to close I would like to open my arms to gesture its passing and, as well, ushering in the dawn of the new year 2009!


Uaminifu Posta TZ ni kiduchu!!

Serikali inafanya nini kuhusu wizi katika posta nchini Tanzania? Hata barua za kawaida zinaibiwa na kufunguliwa na wafanyakazi wa posta.

Nimewaandikia ndugu zangu mara nyingi na, kila mmoja wao, wamesema barua pamoja na picha nilizowatumia hazikuwafikia. Na wote wameniambia nisithubutu kuwatumia kitu chochote kupitia posta nchini Tanzania. Na mmoja wao amesema wananchi wengi wanasema itakuwa ni vizuri posta zikifungwa kwa sababu ya wizi huo ambao unaendelea kwa kasi.

Malalamiko hayo yanatoka sehemu zote za Tanzania. Ndugu zangu niliowaandikia wanaishi sehemu mbali mbali - Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Iringa, Mbozi, Mwanza, Bukoba, Tabora, na Arusha.

Hakuna posta nchini ambayo haina wafanyakazi wanaoiba vitu mbali mbali - barua, vifurushi - vinavyotumwa kutoka n'gambo. Pia wana akili pungufu wanapofikiri kwamba kuna fedha katika barua hizo wanazozifungua.

Labda wananchi wakigoma kutumia posta, hatua zitachukuliwa kupambana na wizi huo.

Nimeishi n'gambo miaka michache (au mingi?) - zaidi ya kumi - na ni jambo la kukatisha tamaa kwa watu kama mimi tunaotaka kurudi nyumbani tunapoona serikali haifanyi chochote kurekebisha mambo - wizi, rushwa, mahongo, ufisadi na kadhalika.

Tutajengaje taifa letu? Kama Mwalimu alivyosema, "Tanzania itajengwa na wenye moyo."

Haitajengwa na wezi. Haitajengwa na wala rushwa au mahongo, na haitajengwa na mafisadi. Wamejaa serikalini na katika kila wizara na idara na sehemu mbali mbali kazini.

Halafu kuna viongozi wanashangaa kwa nini wananchi wengi hawataki kurudi nyumbani? Si Tanzania tu bali nchi zote katika bara letu. (chanzo: jamii-forum)

Tuesday, 23 December 2008

Matokeo std VII: Tathmini yangu

Natofautiana na takwimu au maelezo yaliyotolewa na gazeti Alasiri, kwani zimepotosha picha halisi ya matokeo ya jumla.
Hapa ninanukuu aya kutoka gazeti Alasiri ambapo naona kuna dosari,
'Asilimia 80.73 ya watahiniwa wote waliofanya mtihani wa kuhitimu elimu ya msingi mwaka huu, wamechaguliwa kujiunga na shule za sekondari za Serikali nchini.'

Tathmini yangu (kulingana na mahesabu ya haraka haraka):

Watahiniwa wote jumla: 1,017,969

Waliofaulu mtihani jumla: 536,672 (=52.72% ya watahiniwa wote)

Waliochaguliwa kwenda sekondari za serikali jumla 433,260:
waliochaguliwa wasichana: 188,460 (=43.50% ya waliofaulu)
waliochaguliwa wavulana: 244,800 (=56.50% ya waliofaulu)
Jumla: 433,260 (hii ni sawa na 80.73% ya waliofaulu mtihani (536,672))

80.73% ya waliofaulu mtihani (536,672) ndio wamechaguliwa kujiunga na sekondari za serikali! Kwa hiyo, wanafunzi waliochaguliwa kujiunga na sekondari za serikali (433,260) ni sawa na 42.56% ya wanafunzi wote (1,017,969) waliofanya mtihani wa darasa la saba mwaka huu!!!

Na waliofaulu mtihani ni sawa na 52.72% ya watahiniwa wote.

Wanafunzi ambao wamefaulu lakini hawakuchaguliwa kujiunga na serikali za serikali ni 103,412 sawa na 19.27%

Walioshindwa mtihani jumla yao ni 481,193 (sawa na 47.27% ya watahiniwa wote). Kati yao wasichana ni 274,283 (sawa na 57.0% ya walioshindwa wote) na wavulana ni 206,910 (sawa na 43.0% ya walioshindwa wote)

Tathmini hii inatokana na takwimu kutoka Alasiri na Nipashe hapo chini. Kama kuna mapungufu yoyote ktk mahesabu au ukokotoaji, hilo ni kosa langu binafsi ktk kutafsiri tarakimu.

Waliofeli la Saba

Nusu ya darasa la saba wafeli
Udhaifu wa Mpango wa Maendeleo ya Elimu ya Msingi (MMEM) ulionza mwaka 2002 umeendelea kuonekana baada ya nusu ya wanafunzi waliofanya mitihani ya kumaliza darasa la saba mwaka huu kufeli.

Kati ya wanafunzi 1,017,967 waliofanya mitihani ni wanafunzi 536,672 tu sawa na asilimia 52.73 waliofaulu, wakiwemo wasichana 229,476 sawa na asilimia 45.55 ya wasichana waliofanya mtihani na wavulana 307,196 ambao ni sawa na asilimia 59.75 ya wavulana waliofanya mtihani.

Matokeo haya ni kipimo cha pili cha MMEM baada karibu nusu ya wahitimu wa kwanza toka mpango huo uzinduliwe kufanya vibaya kwenye mtihani wa darasa la saba.

Katika matokeo ya darasa la saba mwaka jana, ni asilimia 54.18 ya wanafunzi 773,550 watainiwa waliofanya mtihani wa darasa la saba waliofaulu, hivyo mwaka huu kiwango cha ufaulu kimezidi kushuka kwa kuangalia asilimia.

Katika matokeo ya mwaka huu, Mkoa wa Dar es Salaam umeongoza kitaifa kwa kufaulisha asilimia 73.9, ikifuatiwa na Arusha, Iringa na Kagera.

Aidha, mikoa iliyofanya vibaya zaidi ni Shinyanga, Lindi, Mara na Tabora.

Akizungumza na waandishi wa habari jijini Dar es Salaam jana, Waziri wa Elimu na Mafunzo ya Ufundi, Profesa Jumanne Maghembe, alisema mikoa yote nchini leo inatangaza matokeo yake na wanafunzi waliochaguliwa.

Matokeo hayo yanaonyesha kuwa karibu nusu ya wanafunzi waliofanya mitihani wamefeli na wengine wameshindwa kufanya vizuri katika masomo ya Hisabati na Kiingereza.

Waliofanya mitihani hiyo ni 1,017,969, lakini waliofaulu ni 536,672 na jumla ya waliofeli ni 481,193 wakiwemo wasichana 274,283 na wavulana 206, 910.

Waziri Maghembe alisema wanafunzi 433,260 sawa na asilimia 80.7 ya waliofaulu wamechaguliwa kuingia kidato cha kwanza kwa shule za sekondari za serikali.

Alisema kati ya wanafunzi waliochaguliwa wasichana ni 188,460 sawa na asilimia 82.13 ya wasichana waliofaulu na wavulana 244,800 sawa na asilimia 79. 69 ya wavulana waliofaulu.

Waziri alisema watahiniwa 102 waliofanya mitihani yao wakiwemo wasichana 41 na wavulana 61 wamefutiwa matokeo yao kwa sababu mbalimbali za udanganyifu katika mitihani hiyo.

Waziri alisema katika mtihani huo, ufaulu katika somo la Kiswahili umeshuka kwa asilimia 6.6 na Kingereza kwa asilimia 0.26, wakati ufaulu katika somo la Sayansi umepanda kwa asilimia 1.5, Maarifa kwa asilimia 4.6 na Hisabati kwa asilimia 0.6.

Ku+husu matokeo ya wenye ulemavu, Waziri alisema jumla ya wanafunzi 346 walifanya mitihani na kati yao wanafunzi 221 wamefaulu na kwamba wote wamechaguliwa kujiunga na sekondari.

Wanafunzi hao walifanya mitihani yao Septemba 10 na 11.

Akizungumzia matokeo hayo, Rais wa Chama cha Walimu Tanzania (CWT), Gratian Mukoba alishtushwa na matokeo hayo na kusema kuwa wanaopaswa kuulizwa kuhusu kufeli huko ni watunga sera na wale wa mitaala.

Alisema kwa upande wao walimu wasitupiwe lawama kwani wamekuwa wakichapa kazi usiku na mchana tena kwa moyo.

Mukoba alisema kufeli huko hakuna uhusiano wowote na mgogoro baina ya CWT na serikali kwani wakati mgomo unaanza wanafunzi hao walishafanya mitihani yao.

``Kufeli huko kusihusishwe na mgomo maana walishafanya mitihani, labda wakifeli mwakani unaweza kusema ni kwasababu ya mgomo lakini si mwaka huu,`` alisema Mkoba.

Ripoti ya Shirika la Hakielimu ya mwaka 2005 kuhusu utekelezaji wa Mpango wa Maendeleo ya Msingi (MMEM), ilisema kuwa wanafunzi wako wengi madarasani na madarasa yamejengwa kwa wingi, lakini vifaa vya kufundishia havipo.

Ilisema Tanzania itarajie kupata wahitimu wasio na sifa stahili kutokana na mfumo mbovu wa elimu uliopo.
Lengo la mpango wa MMEM ni kuandikisha watoto wote wenye umri wa kwenda shule, lakini ulundikwaji wa wanafunzi madarasani na ukosefu wa walimu zimekuwa ni changamoto toka mpango huo kuanzishwa.

Mbali na kuwa serikali inatoa zaidi ya asilimia 18 ya bajeti yote katika elimu.

Wataalam wa masuala ya elimu wamekuwa wakihoji juu ya mpango huo kutoa kipaumbele kuandikisha wanafunzi shuleni bila kujali ubora wa elimu inayotolewa.

(SOURCE: Nipashe, 2008-12-23 12:29:41
Na Joseph Mwendapole)

Matokeo ya la Saba 2008

Matokeo la saba yatoka
Asilimia 80.73 ya watahiniwa wote waliofanya mtihani wa kuhitimu elimu ya msingi mwaka huu, wamechaguliwa kujiunga na shule za sekondari za Serikali nchini.

Akitangaza matokeo hayo leo asubuhi, Waziri wa Elimu na Mafunzo ya Ufundi, Prof. Jumanne Maghembe amesema, kati ya wanafunzi hao waliochaguliwa, wasichana ni 188,460 sawa na asilimia 82.13 ya wasichana wote walifanya mtihani huo wakati wavulana waliochaguliwa kuingia kidato cha kwanza ni 244,800 ambao ni sawa na asilimia 76.66 ya waliotahiniwa.

Amesema idadi ya kufaulu kwa mwaka huu imeongezeka kwa asilimia 31.47 ikilinganishwa na ile ya mwaka jana.

Waziri Maghembe ameongeza kuwa, wanafunzi wengi wamefanya vizurii katika somo la Kiwashili ambalo wamefaulu kwa asilimia 73.41.

Somo lingine walilong`ara ni Sayansi ambapo wamefaulu kwa asilimia 68.24 na Maarifa kwa asilimia 61.03.

Ameitaja mikoa iliyoongopza kwa kufaulu nchini kuwa ni Dar es Salaam uliofaulu kwa asilimia 73.9, ukifuatiwa na Arusha kwa asilimia 66.2, Iringa kwa asilimia 64.1 na Kagera kwa asilimia 63.5.

Kwa mujibu wa Prof. Magembe, mikoa iliyoburuza mkia katika matokeo hayo ni Shinyanga uliofaulu kwa asilimia 34, Lindi asilimia 40, Mara kwa asilimia 42.6 na Tabora kwa asilimia 43.2.

(SOURCE: Alasiri, 2008-12-22 19:15:33 Na Sharon Sauwa, Jijini)

Monday, 22 December 2008

'while history is understood backward; life has to go forward'
-jack straw, question time, bbc-one, 06/11/2008. 23:00 GMT

Heri ya Mwaka Mpya kwa Wanafunzi wenzangu wote!

Salaam kutoka kwa Mosonga Raphael,
Nimejitahidi kuorodhosha majina kadri niwezavyo. Naomba radhi kwa yeyote nitakayekuwa nimemwacha nje ya orodha. Salaam hizi ziwaendee wale wote walioko ktk orodha hapo chini na pia wale ambao sikukumbuka majina yao -salaam hizi ziwaendee pia kwa uzito ule-ule!
HERI YA MWAKA MPYA 2009! (Tusisahau kukumbukana)
***'umuofia kwenu! (things fall apart - chinua achebe) ***

Wanafunzi wenzagu (classmates) Darasa la I-VII, Baranga S/Msingi -Musoma:
1. Marwa Richard Nyamonge -mkondo B
2. Juma Marwa Chogoro -mkondo A
3. Ms Naomi Matutu -mkondo B
4. Ms Mbusiro Michael Kehengu-B
5. Ms Rhobi Chacha Mosenye(?) -B
6. Chacha Nyamonge -Std VIA akahamia Sisimba S/M Mbeya
7. Ms Severina Joram Nkenge -Std VIIA
8. Ms Nyamahemba Washiki -B
9. Ms Wesiko Marwa (monita std I-III) -B
10. Mwita Gati -B
11. Ogunya Mkama Ogunya -B
13. Ms Bhoke Magabe -B
14. Mtatiro Marwa Tienyi -B
15. Ms Bhoke Nyakorema -B
16. Ms Rhobi Msoba -B
17. Chacha Nyamaranya -A
18. Ms Nyawasha Machela -A
19. Ms Elizabeth Wanda -A
20. Marwa Gati -A
21. Ms Bhoke Sarya Mrisya -A
22. Charles Messanga -A
23. Mwita Magabe -A
24. Ms Bhoke Magweiga Kisyeri -B
25. Charles Kisyeri*-A
26. Chacha Mwita -A
27. Chacha Mwita -B
28. Mwita Mashauri -B
29. Chacha Mashauri -A
30. Mwita Marwa Kisyeri -B
31. Mwema Mnanka Samo -Std IVB akahamia Kongoto
32. Musoma Wanda* - Std VIIA
33. Ms Wegesa Wambura Nyakubhilela* -A
34. Ms Ghati Magweiga Kisyeri* -A
35. Ms Scholastica William -B
36. Laurent John-B
37. Buhuru (Uhuru) Samson -B
38. Ms Kichele Gati -A
39. Ms Kichele Magige Bwana -A
40. Ms Bhoke Kiginga -A (Bibi Afya)
41. Ryobha Chacha
42. Juma Mgusuhi (Kamba) -A
43. Nkombe Maswi Ketenta -B
44. Mkami Maswi Ketenta -B
*wameaga dunia

Musoma Secondary School (MUSS), kidato cha I-IV
(Bweni langu: Amri Abeid, first cubicle after Common Room)
1. Haruna Mohamed -Shaaban Robert
2. Deogratius Mwema Thomas
3. Nyanda Gapale
4. Raphael Jowel
5. Venance Ndunga Power
6. Paul Mshimo
7. Paul Kamalamo
8. Leonard William Fweja -Amri Abeid (my dorm. mate)
9. Marco Waryoba
10. Ponsian Constantine -S/Robert
11. Emmanuel Ernest (baba...shibhe!)-S/Robert
12. Muungano James -S/Robert
13. Sophareth Magessa Kataso (Master of Ilele 'irrelevant') -Makongoro
14. Niva Michael -Lumumba
15. Maulid Gakole -Amri Abeid
16. Robinson Magambo -A.A
17. Patroba Materere -S/Robert
18. Kasambalala Evaristi -Lumumba
19. Kizito Nkwabi- Lumumba
20. Alfred Andrew Auma -Mkwawa
21. Yusto sylvester 'VC' -
22. Mayunga ng'home -Amri abeid
23. Kicheche (kamnyama) - A/Abeid
24. (Super Short) Nyasanda -
25. (?) Bondo -
26. Marwa Kenani - Amri Abeid
27. Msafiri (Traveller) -A.A
28. Chongo Cosmas -
29. Bartazar Chilato -Amri Abeid
30.Aruni Kitomwa (Form IB)-A.A
Zakayo Richard* -Makongoro
*passed away

Mazengo High School, Dodoma
(Comb: PGM, Stream: G3.
Bweni langu: Mwongozo,
Room No.9 Chini (Form V) & Room No.14 Down (Form Six)

1. Maulid Gakore PGM- Mwongozo (my dorm. mate, also from MUSS)
2. Bosco Kitura PGM-Azimio
3. Alphonce Kiheri PGM-Muungano G2
4. Shadrak Metili-PGM, G2
5. Manyama -PCB Mwongozo
6. Bilauri -PGM
7. Emmanuel Mabirika -PGM, G3
8. Mwakyembe -PGM, G3
9. Deodadit Hokororo -PGM, G3
10. Anold Masaro -PGM, G3
11. B Chagula -PGM, (President, students' govt)
12. John Danda -PGM, G3
13. Wilfred Mmari -PGM, stream G2 (room-mate no.09Down, no.14Down)
14. Siston Makafu -PGM, G3
15. Samson Sesani -PCB
16. Michael Ndaskoi -PGM G3
17. Fikeni Yona -PGM G2 (roommate No.09D, No.14D)
18. Ruta PCB
19. Ali Jonas??- PGM G3

Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice
Definition: Winter officially begins on the shortest day of the year December 21 (or December 22 in some years) the day of the solstice.

Solstice means the sun stands still. The winter solstice is the day when the midday sun is at its lowest point above the horizon.

Often celebrated with parties and winter customs.

Celebrated on December 21 [or 22] (source: kidsturncentral.com)

Winter solstice

Today Monday 22/12/2008, is The shortest day or the longest night of the year!
The winter solstice occurs at the instant when the Sun's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane from the observers hemisphere. Depending on the shift of the calendar, the event of the winter solstice occurs some time between December 20 and December 23 each year in the northern hemisphere, and between June 20 and June 23 in the southern hemisphere, during either the shortest day or the longest night of the year, which is not to be confused with the darkest day or night or the day with the earliest sunset or latest sunrise.

The seasonal significance of the winter solstice is in the reversal of the gradually lengthening nights and shortening days. How cultures interpret this is varied, since it is sometimes said to astronomically mark either the beginning or middle of a hemisphere's winter. Winter is a subjective term, so there is no scientifically established beginning or middle of winter but the winter solstice itself is clearly calculated to within a second. Though the winter solstice lasts an instant, the term is also colloquially used to refer to the full 24-hour period of the day on which it occurs.

Worldwide, interpretation of the event has varied from culture to culture, but most cultures have held a recognition of rebirth, involving holidays, festivals, gatherings, rituals or other celebrations around that time.

The word solstice derives from Latin sol (sun) and sistere (to stand still).
(source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 22/12/2008)

Kipato vs. matanuzi(?)

Najiuliza sana sipati jibu, napiga picha bado sielewi . . . .

Baadhi ya Watanzania kipatacho chao halali na kinachotambulika kuwa ni halali ni kidogo, ukilinganisha na style ya maisha yao . . . .

- Mshahara hautoshi . . . . Anasomesha watoto Private Schools
- Kipato kidogo . . . . Anajenga nyumba
- Maisha magumu . . . Anavaa na kula vizuri
- Tunapata shida sana na maisha . . . Ana gari . . .
- Hali ni ngumu sana . . . . Utamkuta bar na kwenye starehe nyingine . . .

Ndugu zangu nisaidieni ni wapi hasa wanapata kipato hiki cha ziada wakati vipato vyao vyao vyote vya halali vinajulikana . . . .

I hope sio mafisadi . . . . (source: jamiiforums, 22/12/2008)

Saturday, 20 December 2008

'the brave may not live for ever; but the cautious do not live at all!'
-richard branson, business stripped bare, virgin books

Friday, 19 December 2008

Walimu wangu: Heri ya Mwaka mpya 2009

Walimu wangu: Darasa la I-VII (Baranga S/M):
Fanuel Namba (FN) -English (Mwalimu Mkuu wa kwanza hadi 1980)
Makaranga Kubwela (MK) -Kiswahili
Nyafungo Kubwela (NK) -Sayansi Kimu (dada wa Makaranga, baadae mrs CW)
Amas Joseph (AJ) -English, Sayansi (Mwalimu Mkuu 1980-86)
Chacha 'Mbegete' Jasson (CJ) -Siasa, Michezo, Kiswahili
Chilemeji Wilson Mabuba (CW) -Kiswahili, Hisabati, English
Telesphory Paschal (TP) -English
Flora Matutu (FM); Mrs Amas Joseph -English
Leonidas Lwehumbiza (LL) -Sayansi
Robert Makuna (RM) -Jiografia
Obedi Mangunu (OM)-Kiswahili
Mwita Nyamhanga Obonyo (MN)-Sayansi Kimu, Jografia
Tui Nyamhanga Obonyo* (TN)-Kiswahili, Siasa
Mwita Magweiga Kisyeri (MM) -Hisabati
Daudi Sira 'Philipo Daniel' (DS) -English, Siasa

Walimu wangu: Kidato cha I-IV, Musoma Sec. School (MUSS)

-Ms Rwango

-Mrs Mwita

-Fundisha AN


-Mrs Wambura

-Malima (Mzei)

Additiona Mathematics

Basic Mathematics


History (I&II)

Headmaster: Nahshon Otieno Otuolo
Second Master: Kaishozi
Librarian: Otieno

Kidato cha V-VI, (PGM): Mazengo High School (Dodoma)
-Abraham Nyanda
-Mrs Kafumu


Advanced Mathematics:
-Ms O'Connel (from Boston, US)
-Mwinuke (also academic master)

Headmaster: Sylivester Mkoba*

*passed away

Uefa's Champ/League: Inter vs. Man Utd

Last 16 draw
Chelsea v Juventus
Villarreal v Panathinaikos
Sporting Lisbon v Bayern Munich
Atletico Madrid v FC Porto
Olympique Lyonnais v Barcelona
Real Madrid v Liverpool
Arsenal v AS Roma
Internazionale v United

Teams listed first will play the first leg at home.

Usanii Majengo ya Benki Kuu?


Jamani usanii umetuzidi watanzania. Nahisi magazeti pia hutumiwa kuwajenga hoja zenye kiini macho na kuwazuga wananchi tu – propaganda za kuficha ukweli. Ni kitu cha kufarahisha sana jinsi gazeti la Nipashe la Jumapili 30 Novemba 2008 lilivyoandika kichwa cha habari kikubwa kuwa kampuni ya kimataifa ya wakaguzi wa hesabu wa katika masuala ya majengo M/S Mekon Arc Consult Limited ikishirikiana na kampuni mbili za kimataifa AQE Associates and Bureau for Industries Ltd wameshaanza kazi na wameanza kuuliza maswali kuhusu gharama. Ukweli ni kwamba tenda ya ukaguzi huo – Value for Money, ilikuwa ya ushindani wa kimataifa na makampuni makubwa ya ukaguzi huo wa kitaalamu kutoka nje ya nchi – Africa Kusini, Uingereza, Marekani, Kenya, Uganda walilita tenda zao lakini wote walipigwa chini kwa kuogopa mambo yasiwe kama yale ya wakaguzi wa EPA. Viongozi wenye hekima serikalini waliopendekeza Ernest & Young wachaguliwe kufanya uchunguzi wa EPA wamelaumiwa vibaya sana na vigogo mbalimbali mafisadi serikarini kwani Ernest & Young waliwashikia bango serikari pamoja ni kupigwa mikwara kibao na kuahidiwa tenda kibao za consulting iwapo wangeisaidia serikali kuficha ukweli. Sasa Governor mpya Ndulu alikuja na moto mkali na nia ya kusafisha Benki lakini mambo yanakuwa magumu na naye kashaonywa asaidie kuzima moto na kufukia mashimo, aibu inatosha.

Kampuniya Mekon Arch Consult Limited inamilikiwa na Mtu anaita Moses Mkony yeye hapo zamani alishakuwa Engineer wa serikalini akipafanyakazi National Housing Corporation. Kwa sasa amestaafu na kufungua kampuni yake hiyo ya Mekon Arch Consult Limited iliyokuwa na ofisi zake sehemu ya Kijitonjama kichochoro cha karibu na shule ya msingi kijitonyama.

Kampuni hiyo imeshirikiana na kitengo cha Bureau for Industrial Cooperation (BICO) ni kitengo cha chuo kikuu cha Dar es Salaam chenye kutoa ushauri/consultancy kwa mambo mbali mbali ya ufundi kwa ujumla. Ni mradi wa Chuo Kikuu na sio kampuni binafsi lakini kiongozi wa BICO ni Dr. B.B. Nyichomba. Angalia web page ya BICO katika web site ya chuo kikuu Dar es Salaam

Aqe Associates Ltd pia ni kampuni local ya Quantity Surveyors wako pale Samora Avenue Dar es Salaam,. Tel 255 22 2118225; Tel 255 754 261482 na inamilikiwa na maofisa wa chuo cha Ardhi Institute pale Chuo kikuu, Mmoja wa associates ni Dr. Aldo Lupala mhadhiri pale Ardhi. Hawa ni kuku wa kienyeji mtupu, hakuna hata mzungu wala “ya kimataifa”

Sasa hapo jameni kuna ukweli kuhusu stori ya mwandishi wa Nipashe ya jumapili. Hizi ni kampuni za kimataifa za kukagua mahesabu ya ujenzi kweli? Makao makuu ya MEKON yako uchochoroni kijitonyama nyumba ya kupanga hii kampuni na bwana Mkony wanababe wa kukagua Benki kuu kweli. Kipato chao kidogo kabisa, wanawezaje kuwa independent wakati total income yao ni kiduchu na wanataka kukagua benki kuu yenye mabilioni, je code of ethics za Engineers zinakubali hali kama hiyo?
Watakuwa prone for intimidation kani consulting fee toka Benki kuu kwa kazi hiyo ni kubwa mno.

Benki kuu/Gavana kaamua kuchagua kijikampuni kilicho very local, wenyekukimiliki wako hoi kwa poverty wakikimbiza vijitenda vya ujenzi hapa na pale. Kwa makusudi Gavana anataka aweze kuwa–control. Kwani wamejifunza baada ya kuajiri makampuni ya kimataifa yanakuwa ngangari na kuwashikia bango.

Nafikiri ni suala la muandishi wa nipashe kupotosha ukweli aidha makusudi baada ka kula rushwa ya watuhumiwa ili kuanza kuweka kiini macho, au mwandishi kutoku-fanya utafiti wa kina.

Mkitaka kufuatilia ofisi za Mekon ziko wapi, nitawapa picha ya ofisi hizo, ni kujumba kiko Kijitonyama, ukiwa unatokea makumbusho kuelekea mwenge, unakata kona ya kushoto ya lami pale science kuelekew tandale. Ukiwa barabara hiyo ya Tandale hesabu kona ya tatu kushoto, oposite na car show room moja kata kona hiyo ya kushoto kama uanenda kanisa la KKKT Kijitonyama utaona bango mkono wa kushoto, wanauza makuti ya kusuka, Ukipotea ulizia wanakouza makuti ya kusuka na mafuta ya taa. Ofisi ya Mekon iko hapo. Mekon, Plot 602, Kijitonyama, P O Box 31924 Dar es Salaam, Tel. +255 22 2700784, Fax. +255 22 2647552, Mobile. +255 744 262 249 email
. This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it au mekon@africaonline.co.tz. This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it

Kiini macho hicho cha Gavana Ndulu tumekishutukia. Je kampuni hizo zina utaaalamu wa wa uchunguzi wa kina wa kimahesabu na uwezo wa kugundua wizi wa kalamu?



-na Mtanzania No1 - 2.12.08 @ 14:50 | #1438
(source: www.freemedia.co.tz/daima/habari.php?id=299)

Soma maoni yangu ktk 'comments'

Tuesday, 16 December 2008

Watchout, 'brandshop68' web is a con!

Dear all,
Today I have received an e-mail from my friend suggesting to me to use an online shopping service -brandshop68.com- as a cheap alternative to purchase elctronic products like games consoles, laptops etc.
But later on I came to realise that the mail is not from the sender whom I know but from 'strangerss' somewhere in the Far East!

My advice to you; don't use this website at all.

Further warnings had been given via www.forums.macrumors in July this year
(see below).

operator207Jul 28, 2008, 11:07 AM
My email account has been used to send spam email... by an ip address that seems to be in China. The emails are being sent to my entire address book- not to strangers- but my internal yahoo address book. What can I do in this case? Is it a virus?

I notice that most forums/websites about this issue suggest that it just "looks" like the emails are being sent by my email account because the spam tool fakes the sender's email address. It seems like a different issue if the emails are being sent to my entire address book...

Please help. I am not sure where to start or what I can do about it.

You say "internal Yahoo Address Book". Does this Address Book reside on Yahoo's servers too? If so, maybe someone has hacked your Yahoo Address Book, or maybe you opened an email that grabbed it all somehow.

Regardless, they have your Address Book contents, even if you change passwords at Yahoo, they would still have them. This happens with Viruses on Windows where the virus grabs your Outlook Address Book.

It almost sounds more personal than what a virus would normally do. Which is grab your AB, then send emails from the AB email addresses to the AB email addresses. Yours sounds like its spamming using your email address to those AB email addresses.

Not to sound rude, but have you angered anyone using your Yahoo email address, or angered someone who knows your Yahoo address, or could gain access to your Yahoo Address Book? I ask because this sounds a bit more personal than most.

The worst case is your going to need to change your Yahoo email address, and definitely change your password. Then tell all your contacts that you have changed your email address.


angelasbJul 29, 2008, 04:45 AM
You say "internal Yahoo Address Book". Does this Address Book reside on Yahoo's servers too? If so, maybe someone has hacked your Yahoo Address Book, or maybe you opened an email that grabbed it all somehow.

Regardless, they have your Address Book contents, even if you change passwords at Yahoo, they would still have them. This happens with Viruses on Windows where the virus grabs your Outlook Address Book.

It almost sounds more personal than what a virus would normally do. Which is grab your AB, then send emails from the AB email addresses to the AB email addresses. Yours sounds like its spamming using your email address to those AB email addresses.

Not to sound rude, but have you angered anyone using your Yahoo email address, or angered someone who knows your Yahoo address, or could gain access to your Yahoo Address Book? I ask because this sounds a bit more personal than most.

The worst case is your going to need to change your Yahoo email address, and definitely change your password. Then tell all your contacts that you have changed your email address.

My address book is on the yahoo server. I don't know who could have gained access to my email account. I checked the IP address and it seems to be coming from China. It has been sent out multiple times to the thousand+ addresses in my address book. The email is some kind of advertisement jpg.

I ran a virus check on my computer and it did not find anything. If it is a virus infecting my account on the yahoo server, could it be located and disinfected on my local drives?

I am going to keep trying a bit before I switch email accounts...

Thank you.


operator207Jul 29, 2008, 09:10 AM
My address book is on the yahoo server. I don't know who could have gained access to my email account. I checked the IP address and it seems to be coming from China. It has been sent out multiple times to the thousand+ addresses in my address book. The email is some kind of advertisement jpg.

I ran a virus check on my computer and it did not find anything. If it is a virus infecting my account on the yahoo server, could it be located and disinfected on my local drives?

I am going to keep trying a bit before I switch email accounts...

Thank you.

I am trying to say, your Yahoo account's username and password are most likely compromised. They are most likely not in China, but bouncing off a proxy in China. They got into your account, got a copy of your addressbook, and took off with it. You will not find a virus (especially on OS X) that could do this. And if the Yahoo servers had a virus, I would imagine there would be thousands of people complaining about exactly what your going through.

I would suggest, at minimum, change your password. If this was me, I would dump that email address, its going to get into spam blocks, and get a new one.


AbstractJul 29, 2008, 09:30 AM
Change your password, foo!


kyutihAug 6, 2008, 01:49 AM
it happened to me too few days back. i really have no idea how i got that. i just checked my sent items and found that spam email which was sent to my contacts that i have in my yahoo address book. fortunately i only have 3 contacts since my email is just 2-month old. what i did was changed my password and deleted all my contacts.

i just want to know why it happened and how to prevent it. please help!

here is the spam email...

Subject: Apple iPod touch Digital Media Player

Hi, dear friend
how are you ?
My friend told me an electronics online shopping mall. He bought some Iphones , game consoles and laptops.
They could offer original stuff with very low price.More details,Please Browse the following website.
MSN :brandshop998@hotmail.com
E-mail : brandshop68@yahoo.cn



comeonglosOct 20, 2008, 04:30 PM
I can't help you with the hijacking but I would like to warn you and other not to use brandshop68. I unfortunately fell for the CON because I had an email from a friend so I sent 190 euros. After lots of chasing and emailing I got nothing. They didn't reply and stopped me using MSN messenger to them.

DO NOT use brandshop68 it is a CON - that is why they are hijacking email addresses.

Ukistaajabu ya Musa utaona ya 'SIRIKALI'!

Richmond bado yaitesa Serikali
Serikali imefungua uwanja mpya wa mapambano dhidi ya wabunge baada ya kutangaza wazi kwamba ina mpango wa kununua mitambo ya kufua umeme ya kampuni ya Dowans, uamuzi ambao unapingwa vikali na wawakilishi hao wa wananchi.

Dalili za kuibuka kwa mapambano kati ya watunga sheria na watawala, zilijidhihirisha jana baada tu ya kubainika kwamba zile tetesi za muda mrefu kuwa serikali ilikuwa na mpango wa kununua mitambo hiyo zilikuwa za kweli, baada ya Waziri wa Nishati na Madini, William Ngeleja, kuwathibitisha wabunge kuwa mpango huo ni wa kweli.

Mipango ya serikali iliwekwa hadharani jana na Mwenyekiti wa Kamati ya Bunge ya Nishati na Madini, William Shelukindo, wakati akizungumza na waandishi wa habari jijini Dar es Salaam jana, kuhusu msimamo wa kamati yake kuhusiana na suala hilo.

Mara kadhaa gazeti hili limewahi kuandika kuwa kuna mpango wa siri wa serikali kupitia Wizara ya Nishati na Madini kutaka kununua mitambo ya Dowans, lakini habari hizo zimekuwa zikikanushwa na wahusika au kutotolewa ufafanuzi wa kutosha.

Shelukindo aliweka mambo yote hadharani mbele ya waandishi wa habari kuwa serikali imefikia uamuzi wa kununua mitambo hiyo kwa gharama ya Sh. bilioni 70.

Alieleza kuwa kamati yake juzi iliitwa na Waziri Ngeleja, na kuelezwa uamuzi huo wa serikali na kutakiwa kutoa maoni yake.

Hata hivyo, Shelukindo alisema kamati yake imeieleza wazi serikali kuwa haikubaliani na uamuzi huo kwa kile alichoeleza kuwa unakwenda kinyume cha Azimio la Bunge ambalo linataka mapendekezo yote yaliyotolewa na Kamati Teule ya Bunge iliyochunguza mkataba wa kampuni ya Richmond ambayo iliiuzia mitambo hiyo Dowans kwanza yatekelezwe kabla ya kufikiwa uamuzi wowote wa kuinunua mitambo hiyo.

``Jana (juzi) kamati iliitwa kwenye kikao cha dharura na Waziri wa Nishati na Madini kuelezwa uamuzi wa serikali kutaka kununua mitambo ya Dowans na tukatakiwa kutoa maoni yetu.

Sisi kama wabunge tumekataa kushirikishwa katika uamuzi huo kwa sababu kwanza kanuni za Bunge haziruhusu jambo lililokwisha pitishwa na Bunge kujadiliwa upya na pili, Sheria ya Manunuzi ya Umma hairuhusu serikali kununua vifaa au mitambo chakavu,`` alisema Shelukindo.

Shelukindo ambaye katika mkutano huo na waandishi wa habari alikuwa amefuatana na mjumbe mmoja wa kamati yake, Christopher Ole Sendeka, alionyesha wazi kukerwa na uamuzi huo wa serikali, ambao alisema ni dharau kwa Bunge.

Alifafanua kuwa moja ya mapendekezo yaliyotolewa na Kamati Teule ya Bunge iliyokuwa ikichunguza mkataba wa Richmond ni kutaka watu wote waliohusika kupitisha mkataba huo wachukuliwe hatua za kisheria, lakini kamati yake ikashangazwa kuona kuwa kabla ya hatua hizo kuchukuliwa, serikali imechukua uamuzi wa kutaka kununua mitambo hiyo iliyoleta matatizo makubwa.

``Tulitegemea tumeitwa ili tuelezwe utekelezaji wa maazimio ya Kamati Teule ya Bunge iliyokuwa ikichunguza mkataba wa Richmond na si kuibua tena suala la Dowans, kuihusisha Kamati ya Bunge katika maamuzi haya ni kinyume cha taratibu kwa sababu ilishaamuliwa na Bunge kwa hiyo kuridhia itakuwa ni kuleta mgogoro kati ya Bunge na Serikali,`` alisema Shelukindo, ambaye ni Mbunge wa Bumbuli (CCM).

``Hii ni sawa umemkamata mwizi wa mali yako na baada ya kumkamata mnakaa kuzungumza ili akuuzie mali aliyokuibia,`` alisema.

Alieleza kuwa kama Serikali iliona kuna umuhimu wa kuchukua uamuzi huo, kwanza ilitakiwa kujenga hoja ya msingi badala ya kulifanya jambo hilo kuwa siri na kisha kuwashtukiza wabunge kutaka ushauri wao.

``Tumeambiwa kuwa mitambo ipo minne lakini yote imekwisha tumika isipokuwa mmoja ambao ni mpya kidogo, lakini pia umetumika, sheria ya manunuzi ya umma inakataza serikali kununua mitambo chakavu,`` aliongeza.

Kwa upande wake, Ole Sendeka alisema kisheria serikali hairuhusiwi kununua vitu chakavu, lakini inashangaza Wizara ya Nishati na Madini inataka kununua mitambo chakavu.

Alisema ni heri hizo Sh. bilioni 70 zikatumika kuimarisha miundombinu ya Shirika la Umeme Tanzania (Tanesco) na kutafuta vyanzo vingine vya uzalishaji umeme kuliko kununua mitambo hiyo.

Sendeka alisema wabunge wameshangaa kuarifiwa uamuzi huo wa serikali siku mbili kabla haijapeleka zabuni ya kununua mitambo hiyo.

``Tumekataa kushiriki kubariki kutumia Sh. bilioni 70 kununua mitambo chakavu, serikali ikiamua kufanya hivyo tutajuana mbele, lakini hatutaki kuwa sehemu ya manunuzi hayo,`` alisema Ole Sendeka.

Akizungumza na Nipashe hivi karibuni, Ngeleja alisema hawezi kulizungumzia suala la endapo serikali ina mpango wa kununua mitambo ya kuzalisha umeme ya kampuni ya Dowans, kwa kile kile alichoeleza kuwa suala hilo kwanza ni lazima lipitie ngazi mbalimbali za maamuzi za serikali pamoja na kufuata taratibu za kisheria.

``Siwezi kuzungumzia suala hili, unajua serikali ina ngazi zake mbalimbali za maamuzi na kama lipo ni lazima lipitie kwanza ngazi hizo pamoja na kufuata taratibu za kisheria,`` alisema.

Hata hivyo, Ngeleja alisema serikali katika mipango yake ya kushughulia tatizo la uhaba wa umeme nchini, imejiwekea mikakati ya muda mfupi na ya muda mrefu ya kulitafutia ufumbuzi wa kudumu tatizo hilo na moja ya mikakati hiyo ni kununua mitambo mipya ya kuzalisha umeme.

Alipoulizwa na Nipashe, endapo katika mipango hiyo ya serikali ya kununua mitambo mipya inafikiria kununua mitambo ya kampuni ya Dowans, alisema hawezi kuzungumza lolote kwani serikali ina taratibu zake za kushughulikia suala kama hilo.

``Unajua kama nchi tuna tatizo kubwa la uhaba wa umeme na katika kulitafutia ufumbuzi suala hili na ni lazima tutanunua mitambo mipya kwa sababu ni jambo muhimu,`` alisisitiza waziri huyo.

Kutokana na hatua hiyo, Kamati ya Bunge ya Nishati na Madini, katika wiki ya mwisho ya mkutano wa 13 wa Bunge mjini Dodoma, ilimuita Ngeleja na kumuonya dhidi ya uamuzi huo kwani ni ukiukaji na dharau dhidi ya agizo la Bunge na ni mwendelezo wa maslahi binafsi ya watendaji waandamizi wa Tanesco kwenye Dowans iliyonunua mitambo hiyo kutoka kampuni ya Richmond.

Baada ya Shelukindo kutangaza uamuzi wa kamati yake jana, Ngeleja alitafutwa na Nipashe kutoa maoni yale, lakini simu yake ya kiganjani wakati wote ilikuwa haipatikani.
(SOURCE: Nipashe, 2008-12-16 11:52:35 Na Abdallah Bawazir na Joseph Mwendapole)

Saturday, 13 December 2008

'if you can meet triumph and disaster, treat these two the same way'

Jengo la Maliasili Samora Ave. lawaka moto

Ofisi ya Waziri nusra iungue

Ofisi ya Waziri wa Maliasili na Utalii iliyopo katika Mtaa wa Samora Jijini imenusurika kuungua wakati sehemu ya jengo la wizara yake liliposhika moto usiku wa kuamkia leo.

Kaimu Kamanda wa Polisi katika Kanda Maalum ya Dar es Salaam, Evarist Mangala, amesema moto huo ulianza jana kuanzia mishale ya saa 5:30 usiku na kuendelea kwa saa kadhaa kabla ya kuzimwa.

Akasema moto huo ulianzia katika ofisi ya Katibu Mkuu wa Wizara hiyo katika ghorofa ya tatu na kisha kusambaa kwenye ofisi nyingine zilizopo kwenye jengo hilo.

Kamanda Mangala amesema sehemu kubwa ya ofisi ya Katibu Mkuu huyo wa Wizara inayoongozwa na Waziri Shamsa Mwangunga, imeteketea kwa moto na kusababisha hasara kubwa.

Amevitaja baadhi ya vitu vilivyoteketea kwa moto kuwa ni kompyuta, simu, kabati, seti ya televisheni na mafaili kibao muhimu yaliyokuwa ndani ya ofisi hiyo.

Hata hivyo, Kamanda Mangala amesema moto huo ulidhibitiwa na watu mbalimbali walioshirikiana na askari wa zimamoto ambao waliwahi kufika eneo hilo na kutekeleza wajibu wao.

Aidha, amesema chanzo cha moto huo kinadhaniwa kuwa ni hitilafu ya umeme, ingawa akadai kuwa uchunguzi zaidi wa kitaalam kuhusiana na tukio hilo bado haujafanyika ili kubaini chanzo cha kuwepo na hitilafu hiyo ya umeme.

Kamanda Mangala ameongeza kuwa moto huo haukuwa na madhara yoyote kwa binadamu na kwamba hadi sasa, hasara halisi iliyotokana na tukio hilo bado haijafahamika.

(SOURCE: Alasiri, 2008-12-12 21:48:36 Na Emmanuel Lengwa na Kiyao Hoza, Jijini)

Clandestine "Dollarisation" is a problem!

Dollarisation now a chronic problem
The Governor of the Bank of Tanzania (BoT), Professor Benno Ndulu, has admitted that dollarisation of the domestic economy is a growing problem which requires serious institutional reforms for it to be redressed.
In an exclusive interview in Dar es Salaam on Wednesday, the BoT boss said existing financial laws were not competent enough in dealing with the problem effectively, much as focused inter-institutional cooperation was equally lacking to arrest the currency mess.
Presently, he said, financial laws of the land did not specifically restrict the use of the US dollar as a medium of exchange in conducting domestic transactions.
However, Ndulu was categorical that ``BoT will never encourage use of foreign currency, especially the US dollar, in carrying out home-based transactions``.
``We are so much concerned about the matter. We therefore plead with the public to leak to us any information that will lead to unveiling networks oiling and fueling the dirty game,`` he said.
What is happening in Tanzania, according to analysts, is a process of unofficial or partial dollarisation, whereby individuals substitute domestic money with foreign cash in order to conduct transactions and protect their purchasing power.
While dollarisation is an observable process, it can only be measured accurately if financial transactions using foreign currency are permitted, which is not the case in Tanzania for the time being.
Our survey shows that landlords in Dar es Salaam\'s high-ended Mbezi Beach, notoriously charge rentals in US dollars.
Even rentals for office and school spaces in some parts of Tegeta, Mikocheni and Masaki in the city are charged in hard currencies.
Ndulu confirmed to have heard about rumours related to such rental transactions in US dollars, yet he insisted that tenants should refrain from settling their bills in foreign currencies.
``We will stage serious investigations across suspected areas, as well as raising more public awareness about the economic maladies of dollarisation``, he said.
At a later stage, he hinted, the issuance of national identity cards would make it easier to trace agents running this disgraceful underground financial system.
As for Bureax de Change, he said there were elaborate rules and regulations guiding their businesses, including requirement that every transaction must be furnished with receipt.
Likewise, all tourist hotels are supposed to have an in house bureau de change outfit to facilitate foreign exchange transactions for incoming and outgoing visitors.
``Tanzanians seeking accommodation in tourist hotels are not supposed to pay their bills in US dollars``, he said.
When reached for comments, Finance and Economy Minister Mustapha Mkulo said dollarisation was truly an embarrassing issue, taking into account the endless complaints made by various individuals, including MPs, business people and individuals.
However, he disclosed that plans were underway for a joint meeting with the BoT with the aim of investigating the relevance of the existing financial laws that govern currency, in the upshot, proposing permanent solutions.
``Rampant dollarisation of the economy is dangerous for the wellbeing of the nation.
We will come up with a statement after having discussions with BoT over the matter``, he said.
Michael James, a Mbezi Beach resident, complained to this reporter about the kind of hassles he undergoes when it comes to paying rent in US dollars.
``I am obliged to travel all the way downtown to change local currency in bureau de change for the US dollar, otherwise my landlord will not accept local currency``, he said.
(SOURCE: Guardian, 2008-12-13 11:51:44. By Joyce Kisaka)

Friday, 12 December 2008

'we have to fight aids; not people with aids'
-man united/unicef campaign
'don't shoot the messenger'

12/12/1963: Siku ya Uhuru wa Kenya

Kumbukumbu zangu zinaonyesha kuwa leo jamhuri ya Kenya wanasherekea miaka 45 ya uhuru wao kutoka kwa mkoloni (mwingereza0.
Hongera sana Kenya, dumisheni Umoja na Mshikamano ili kuendeleza matunda ya uhuru kwa manufaa yenu, Afrika na dunia kwa ujumla.

Fiscal Policy (Definition of)

Fiscal policy involves the Government changing the levels of Taxation and Govt Spending in order to influence Aggregate Demand (AD) and therefore the level of economic activity.

AD is the total level of planned expenditure in an economy (AD = C+ I + G + X – M)
The purpose of Fiscal Policy:
Reduce the rate of inflation, (UK government has a target of 2%)
Stimulate economic growth in a period of a recession.
Basically, fiscal policy aims to stabilise economic growth, avoiding the boom and bust economic cycle.
Fiscal Stance:
This refers to whether the govt is increasing AD or decreasing AD

Expansionary (or loose) Fiscal Policy.
This involves increasing AD,
Therefore the govt will increase spending (G)
and cut taxes. Lower taxes will increase consumers spending because they have more disposable income(C)
This will worsen the govt budget deficit

Deflationary (or tight) Fiscal Policy
This involves decreasing AD
Therefore the govt will cut govt spending (G)
And or increase taxes. Higher taxes will reduce consumer spending (C)
This will lead to an improvement in the government budget deficit

Fine Tuning : This involves maintaining a steady rate of economic growth through using fiscal policy. However this has proved quite difficult to achieve precisely.

Automatic Fiscal Stabilisers
If the economy is growing, people will automatically pay more taxes ( VAT and Income tax) and the Government will spend less on unemployment benefits. The increased T and lower G will act as a check on AD.
In a recession the opposite will occur with tax revenue falling but increased government spending on benefits, this will help increase AD

Discretionary Fiscal Stabilisers
This is a deliberate attempt by the govt to affect AD and stabilise the economy, e.g. in a boom the govt will increase taxes to reduce inflation
Injections (J): This is an increase of expenditure into the circular flow, it includes govt spending(G), Exports (X) and Investment (I)
Withdrawals (W): This is leakages from the circular flow This is household income that is not spent on the circular flow. It includes: Net savings (S) + Net Taxes (T) + Net Imports (M)

Note Fiscal Policy was particularly used in the 50s and 60s to stabilise economic cycles. These policies were broadly referred to as 'Keynesian' In the 1970s and 80s governments tended to prefer monetary policy for influencing the economy.
There are many factors which make successful implementation of fiscal Policy difficult.

Fiscal policy

Fiscal policy refers to government attempts to influence the direction of the economy through changes in government taxes, or through some spending (fiscal allowances).

Fiscal policy can be contrasted with the other main type of economic policy, monetary policy, which attempts to stabilize the economy by controlling interest rates and the supply of money. The two main instruments of fiscal policy are government spending and taxation. Changes in the level and composition of taxation and government spending can impact on the following variables in the economy:

Aggregate demand and the level of economic activity;
The pattern of resource allocation;
The distribution of income.

Fiscal policy
Fiscal policy refers to the overall effect of the budget outcome on economic activity. The three possible stances of fiscal policy are neutral, expansionary and contractionary:

A neutral stance of fiscal policy implies a balanced budget where G = T (Government spending = Tax revenue). Government spending is fully funded by tax revenue and overall the budget outcome has a neutral effect on the level of economic activity.
An expansionary stance of fiscal policy involves a net increase in government spending (G > T) through a rise in government spending or a fall in taxation revenue or a combination of the two. This will lead to a larger budget deficit or a smaller budget surplus than the government previously had, or a deficit if the government previously had a balanced budget. Expansionary fiscal policy is usually associated with a budget deficit.
A contractionary fiscal policy (G < T) occurs when net government spending is reduced either through higher taxation revenue or reduced government spending or a combination of the two. This would lead to a lower budget deficit or a larger surplus than the government previously had, or a surplus if the government previously had a balanced budget. Contractionary fiscal policy is usually associated with a surplus.

Methods of funding
Governments spend money on a wide variety of things, from the military and police to services like education and healthcare, as well as transfer payments such as welfare benefits.

This expenditure can be funded in a number of different ways:

Seignorage, the benefit from printing money
Borrowing money from the population, resulting in a fiscal deficit.
Consumption of fiscal reserves.
Sale of assets (e.g., land).

Funding the deficit
A fiscal deficit is often funded by issuing bonds, like treasury bills or consols. These pay interest, either for a fixed period or indefinitely. If the interest and capital repayments are too large, a nation may default on its debts, usually to foreign creditors.

Some peculiarities exist: for example, the US owes most of its own debt to itself. Compared to GDP and factoring in inflation, its debt is significantly less than in the past.

Consuming the surplus
A fiscal surplus is often saved for future use, and may be invested in local (same currency) financial instruments, until needed. When income from taxation or other sources falls, as during an economic slump, reserves allow spending to continue at the same rate, without incurring a deficit. Hong Kong ran a fiscal surplus of HK$123.6 billion in fiscal year 2007/08 (ended March 31, 2008), equal to US$15.85 billion or 7.7% of 2007 GDP.

Economic effects of fiscal policy
Fiscal policy is used by governments to influence the level of aggregate demand in the economy, in an effort to achieve economic objectives of price stability, full employment and economic growth. Keynesian economics suggests that adjusting government spending and tax rates are the best ways to stimulate aggregate demand. This can be used in times of recession or low economic activity as an essential tool in providing the framework for strong economic growth and working toward full employment. The government can implement these deficit-spending policies due to its size and prestige and stimulate trade. In theory, these deficits would be paid for by an expanded economy during the boom that would follow; this was the reasoning behind the New Deal.

During periods of high economic growth, a budget surplus can be used to decrease activity in the economy. A budget surplus will be implemented in the economy if inflation is high, in order to achieve the objective of price stability. The removal of funds from the economy will, by Keynesian theory, reduce levels of aggregate demand in the economy and contract it, bringing about price stability.

Despite the importance of fiscal policy, a paradox exists. In the case of a government running a budget deficit, funds will need to come from public borrowing (the issue of government bonds), overseas borrowing or the printing of new money. When governments fund a deficit with the release of government bonds, an increase in interest rates across the market can occur. This is because government borrowing creates higher demand for credit in the financial markets, causing a lower aggregate demand (AD) due to the lack of disposable income, contrary to the objective of a budget deficit. This concept is called crowding out. Alternatively, governments may increase government spending by funding major construction projects. This can also cause crowding out because of the lost opportunity for a private investor to undertake the same project. Another problem is the time lag between the implementation of the policy and detectable effects in the economy. An expansionary fiscal policy (decreased taxes or increased government spending) is usually intended to produce an increase in aggregate demand; however, an unchecked spiral in aggregate demand will lead to inflation. Hence, checks need to be kept in place.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Monetary policy

Monetary policy is the process by which the government, central bank, or monetary authority of a country controls
(i) the supply of money,
(ii) availability of money, and
(iii) cost of money or rate of interest, in order to attain a set of objectives oriented towards the growth and stability of the economy.

Monetary theory provides insight into how to craft optimal monetary policy.

Monetary policy is referred to as either being an expansionary policy, or a contractionary policy, where an expansionary policy increases the total supply of money in the economy, and a contractionary policy decreases the total money supply.
Expansionary policy is traditionally used to combat unemployment in a recession by lowering interest rates, while contractionary policy involves raising interest rates in order to combat inflation.
Monetary policy should be contrasted with fiscal policy, which refers to government borrowing, spending and taxation.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)


The term fiscal refers to government debt, expenditures and revenues, or to finance (particularly financial revenue) in general.

Fiscal deficit is the budget deficit of federal or local government
Fiscal policy is the discretionary spending of governments. Contrasts with monetary policy.
Fiscal year and fiscal quarter are reporting periods for firms and other agencies.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Tuesday, 9 December 2008

Mipango na Makazi

Zipo aina nyingi za mpangilio ya makazi (forms of settlements).
1. Linear
2. Grid
3. Radial
4. Clusters

Pia ipo sera ya serikali (wizara ya ardhi) kuhalalisha maeneo yasiyo rasmi (squatters) ili yapewe hati rasmi na kutambulika kisheria.
Ipo mifano mingi duniani ambapo makazi yasiyo rasmi huhalalishwa (na kutambulika) kisheria.
Baada ya uhalalishwaji wa maeneo hayo, huduma muhimu za kimaisha husambazwa huko, mathalani;
-barabara inayopitika majira yote,
-huduma za maji, umeme n.k.

Mipangilio ya makazi ipo ya aina nyingi kama ilivyoonyeshwa hapo juu. Kwa hiyo sio lazima mpangilio wa ujenzi wa makazi uwe ktk mstari ulionyooka kama wengi wanavyodhani. Inaweza kuwa "organic, random, cluster or even contrasting shapes". Usanifu unatoa nafasi ya kufanya uzuri uonekane ktk maumbile mengi, sio mstari ulionyooka kama tulivyozoea!

Fixtures: December 2008 (Man Utd)

03 Dec League Cup (Carling) Blackburn H 20:00 W 5-3 Tevez (4), Nani
06 Dec Barclays Premier League Sunderland H 17:30 W 1-0, Vidic
10 Dec UEFA Champions League Aalborg BK H 19:45 D 2-2 Tevez, Rooney
13 Dec Barclays Premier League Tottenham A 17:30 D 0-0
17 Dec FIFA Club World Cup: Gamba Osaka N* W 5-3 Vidic, Ranaldo, Rooney(2), Fletcher
21 Dec FIFA Club W/Cup, Japan: LDU Quito N* W 1-0, Rooney
26 Dec Barclays Premier League Stoke City A 12:45 W 1-0, Tevez
29 Dec Barclays Premier League Middlesbrough H 20:00 W 1-0 Berbatov

N* - neutral venue (Yokohama Stadium, Japan)

Uhuru wa Tanganyika: Miaka 47 leo

Leo ni siku ya uhuru wa Tanganyika (Tanzania Bara).
Naitakia kila la heri nchi yangu Tanzania. Tanzania Bara ilipata uhuru wake tarehe 09/12/1961.

Tanzania, Tanzania, Nakupenda kwa moyo woteee!
Nilalapo nakuota wewe, jina lako ni tamu sana wee!
Tanzania, Tanzania, Nakupenda kwa moyo wote

(Nilipokuwa JKT Masange, mwaka 1990, Mkuu wa JKT wakati huo Maj.Gen. Makame Rashid alitoa ofa ya 'pass' ya siku 3 ikiwa kuruta (serviceman/woman) atajitokeza na kuuimba wimbo huu wote! Dada mmoja alipata pass hiyo!
Maj. Gen. Makame alikuwa ametembelea kambi yetu iliyokuwa jirani na Kalunde, jimbo la Tabora Kaskazini)

Reginald Mengi vs. 'Vitisho'

Hivi karibuni, Reginald Mengi ambaye pia ni Mwenyekiti wa Chama cha Wamiliki wa Vyombo vya Habari (MOAT), alikaririwa akisema, ameanza kuandamwa na vitisho dhidi ya maisha yake.

Kwa mujibu wa Mengi, kuandamwa huko kumetokea baada ya watu wasiojulikana, kumtumia ujumbe wa maandishi kwa njia ya simu, ukimtaja kuwa kinara wa mapambano dhidi ya ufisadi nchini.

Mengi alishatoa taarifa za vitisho hivyo katika kituo cha polisi Oysterbay jijini Dar es Salaam.

Hata hivyo, alisema vitisho hivyo haviwezi kamwe kumkatisha tamaa na kumfanya aache kutetea haki na kupambana na vitendo ya ufisadi.

Vitisho dhidi ya Mengi, vilitumwa kwa ujumbe wa maneno kupitia simu ya mkononi, yenye namba 0768 373967.

Ulisomeka hivi: ``Ni afadhali kunyofoa roho yako ipotee kuliko kuendelea kukuachia uchafue amani na utulivu wa nchi kwa tamaa zako za kutaka urais.``

Ujumbe mwingine alisomeka, "Unachafua sana amani ya nchi kwa uchochezi wako. Tunajua unawahonga wahariri wote na kukusujudia kama Mungu mtu.
Unapenyeza sumu kali ya uzandiki watu waichukie serikali.
Hivi yakitokea machafuko wewe utasalimika?"

``Wewe ni mnafiki mkubwa, unajifanya upo karibu na `Government` (serikali) kumbe ni mnafiki wa kutisha. Jihadhari lazima tukumalize!``

Pia, Mengi alisema kuna waziri mmoja kijana katika serikali ya Rais Jakaya Kikwete, ameshaanza kuandaa mikakati ya kumhujumu kibiashara.

Ingawa hakumtaja kwa jina, lakini Mengi alisema waziri huyo anaongoza wizara nyeti na kwamba alitoa pendekezo hilo katika kikao kinachotambulika, akitaka kuona (Mengi) anafilisiwa kama alivyofanyiwa tajiri mmoja mkubwa nchini Urusi.

Siku chache baadaye, Masha alijitokeza hadharani na kupitia waandishi wa habari, alimtaka Mengi kuthibitisha madai ya kuwepo waziri anayefanya njama za kutaka kummaliza kibiashara, kwa kumbambikizia kodi kubwa, ili ashindwe kulipa na baadaye afilisiwe.

Masha ambaye ni mmoja wa mawaziri vijana katika Baraza la Mawaziri wa serikali ya awamu ya nne, alijitokeza na kumpa Mengi siku saba kutoa ushahidi wa madai yake na kusema akishindwa kuthibitisha, atachukuliwa hatua.

SOURCE: Nipashe, 09/12/2008

Saturday, 6 December 2008

League Cup: Man Utd face Derby County

United must beat Derby County over two legs in order to reach the Carling Cup final.

The semi-final draw, made at 12:20 GMT on Saturday, pitted the Reds away from home in the first match, which will be played in the week commencing 5 January. The second leg will be played in the week commencing 19 January.

In the other semi-final, Burnley will travel to White Hart Lane first to take on Carling Cup holders Tottenham Hotspur.

United have reached the semi-final stage of the competition 10 times before, progressing to the final on six occasions.

The Reds have met Derby Country just twice in the League Cup, back in 1969 in the fifth round. The sides drew 0-0 at The Baseball Ground before a Brian Kidd goal settled the replay at Old Trafford seven days later.

Paul Jewell's Derby side have reached the semi-final stage by beating Lincoln City, Preston North End, Brighton & Hove Albion, Leeds United and Stoke City so far this season.

Ticket news will be announced on ManUtd.com in the coming days.
Carling Cup semi-final draw
Tottenham Hotspur v Burnley
Derby County v United

Semi-finals are two-legged affairs.

First-leg ties will be played week commencing 5 January, second-leg ties week commencing 19 January.

Carling Cup final to be played at Wembley Stadium on 1 March 2009
(source: www.manutd.com, 06/12/2008 12:20, Report by Nick Coppack)

Tuesday, 2 December 2008

"give me fish, i will be satisfied today.
teach me how to fish, i will be satisfied forever"
-old chinese saying!

Mwaka, karibu sana

Leo nimebahatika kupata mawasiliano na rafiki yangu ndugu Mwaka. Mimi na Mwaka ni ma-'classmate' pale Ardhi-Chuo enzi hizo -Architecture (then Ardhi Institute/Uclas, now Ardhi University).

Napenda kumkaribisha rasmi Mkuu hapa jukwaani - Karibu sana mkuu!!!

Kwa wale vijana wa enzi hizo pale Ardhi ambao wangependa kupata mawasiliano na Mkuu Mwaka au kwa yeyote ambaye angependa kuulizia huduma ambazo Mwaka na wenzie wanazitoa kikazi asisite kuwasiliana nae kupitia:

Architects and Projects Management Consultants
327 Garden road,mikocheni
P.O.Box 35492
Dar es salaam
Tel +255 22 277 2480
Fax +255 22 277 2481
Mob +255 754 292 621

email: mwakaarch@yahoo.com

Kwa upande wangu, kama kawaida napatikana mosonga2002@yahoo.com

Monday, 1 December 2008

Sincerity is the virtue of one who speaks truly about his or her own feelings, thoughts, desires.
Sincere expression carries risks to the speaker, since the ordinary screens used in everyday life are opened to the outside world. At the same time, we expect our friends, our lovers, our leaders "to be sincere".

01/12/2008: World AIDS Day (20yrs on!)

The number of people living with HIV is continuing to rise in every part of the world - including in the UK. There are now 33 million people living with HIV worldwide and 80,000 people living with HIV in the UK.

What is HIV?
HIV is a virus that attacks the body's immune system - the body's defence against diseases. The latest research suggests that between 70 and 90 per cent of people may experience symptoms of infection a few days after having been infected. Three symptoms occurring together: fever, rash and a severe sore throat should always be considered a potential indicator of HIV infection. These symptoms usually disappear within two or three weeks. Other people may not have symptoms to start with. In all cases, without effective treatment the immune system will eventually become very weak and no longer be able to fight off illnesses.

Are HIV and AIDS the same?
No. When someone is described as living with HIV, they have the HIV virus in their body. A person is considered to have developed AIDS when the immune system is so weak it can no longer fight off a range of diseases with which it would normally cope.

I don't know anyone with HIV... do I?
There are approximately 80,000 people living with HIV in the UK and about a third of these don't know that they are infected. The epidemic is still growing in the UK with around 7,000 new diagnoses every year. Even if someone you know is living with HIV, they may not feel able to tell you.

Is there a cure for HIV?
No, but treatment can keep the virus under control and the immune system healthy. People on HIV treatment can live a healthy, active life, although they may experience side effects from the treatment. If HIV is diagnosed late, treatment may be less effective in preventing AIDS.

What's it like living with HIV?
If people with HIV are diagnosed early and respond to treatment they can be healthy, work and have relationships like anyone else and have a long life expectancy.

Coming to terms with an HIV diagnosis and getting used to treatment can be very difficult however, and people living with HIV will often need support from healthcare providers, friends and family, employers and support organisations.

Why do people find it hard to tell others they are HIV positive?
People living with HIV may find it hard to tell others about their condition as they worry that people will reject them, or they will experience prejudice from friends, family and colleagues. People living with HIV can also experience discrimination in their workplace, in healthcare settings (e.g., GPs and dentists), from members of their local community and through the media.

HIV prejudice is often the result of ignorance about how HIV is passed on and unfounded fear of becoming infected. Encouraging those around us to talk about HIV and find out the facts can help overcome this. (source: www.worldaidsday.org)